What is hip dysplasia?
Hip dysplasia means "hip deformity" and is usually referred to as "HD". Hip dysplasia is a developmental disorder of the hip joints determined by hereditary factors and external influences. Some dogs are seriously affected. The indication HD A means that the dog is X-ray free of hip dysplasia, which does not mean that the dog cannot be a "carrier" of the abnormality.
HD B (= transitional form) means that minor changes have been found on the X-rays, which must be attributed to hip dysplasia, but to which no direct meaning can be attributed in the context of breeding.
The indication HD C (= slightly positive) or HD D (= positive) means that in the dog clear changes, fitting in the clinical picture of HD, have been found.
When the hip joints are seriously deformed, this is indicated by HD E (=positive in optima forma).